Dr. Nagendra R. Hegde is an animal virologist and immunologist with experience in veterinary and human virology, immunology, cell biology and microbiology.
Dr.Hegde completed Bachelor of Veterinary Science (B.V.Sc.; 1989) and Master of Veterinary Science (M.V.Sc. in Veterinary Microbiology and Public Health, focussing on Virology; 1992) from the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India, and Ph.D. (Veterinary & Biomedical Sciences, specializing in Immunology; 1998) from the University of Nebraska, U.S.A. He then worked as a Post-doctoral Fellow (Aug 1998 to Mar 2004) and then as a Research Assistant Professor (Apr 2004 to May 2006) in the areas of Virology, Cell Biology and Host-Pathogen Interaction at the Oregon Health & Science University, U.S.A. Before joining NIAB, he was a Group Leader (Aug 2006 to Mar 2014) and then the Associate Director (Apr 2014 to Mar 2017) at Ella Foundation, Hyderabad, India.
Dr. Hegde’s major contribution has been in virology, where he has worked on epidemiology, genomics, vaccines and diagnostics as well as interaction with host cells of animal (as well as human) DNA and RNA viruses. In immunology, he has worked on bovine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and cell-mediated immunity (CMI). In microbiology, he has worked on epidemiology and vaccines for bovine mastitis-causing pathogens. His research interests at NIAB are to understand the epidemiology, genomics, and biology of important livestock diseases, to devise measures to protect animals from these diseases, and to elucidate fundamentals of cell biological and immunological responses in bovines. He has recently embarked on understanding various aspects of antimicrobial resistance in poultry.
Google Scholar profile: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=ZVkjdNkAAAAJ&hl=en
Our group works on the broad area of microbial pathobiology, including genomic characterization of microbes, host-microbe interactions, virulence factors and mechanisms, methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention, and consequences of consequences of livestock and poultry production practices and animal-human interface to public health. A brief description of the specific areas of research are outlined below:
1. Genetic diversity of bovine and bubaline mastitis-associated pathogens and potential interventions for bacterial mastitis
Mastitis is an important disease of lactating animals. Staphylococci are the major cause of subclinical, chronic and recurrent mastitis. Antibiotics are used to treat mastitis, but frequently without rationale. Understanding the diversity of staphylococci can help better devise control and intervention strategies for mastitis besides contributing to a repository of characterized strains.
Led by our group, and in collaboration with Karnataka Veterinary Animal & Fisheries Sciences University and Madurai Kamaraj University, we have so far analysed more than 200 Staphylococcus. aureus isolates obtained from cases of bovine and bubaline mastitis. Profiling techniques have involved staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing, multi-locus sequence typing and pulsed-field electropherotyping as well as investigations into virulence determinants such as methicillin resistance as well as a limited set of toxins (hemolysins, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, toxic shock syndrome toxin). Our studies have revealed the existence of more than 30 distinct genetic types which clustered into two major clonal complexes, suggesting diversity and yet closely related lineages of mastitis-associated S. aureus strains. We have carried out complete genome sequencing of some of the isolates and are in the process of analysing the data.
We have now begun to examine the ability of S. aureus isolates to form biofilm. The results so far have indicated that up to 30% of the isolates can form biofilm in vitro. The effect of biofilm formation on the ability of select isolates to resist antibiotic treatment in vitro is being carried out currently.
2. Developing of diagnostics for health monitoring of laboratory animals
Mice and rats are widely used in research to understand basic biology and for modelling diseases, as well as for pre-clinical and regulatory toxicology studies. Subclinical infection of these animals can compromise the outcome of experiments, but health monitoring is rarely performed in India. Furthermore, regulatory guidelines for preclinical toxicology testing stress that such animals are free from specific pathogens. It is therefore necessary to monitor the microbiological health status of experimental animals. In collaboration with Indian Institute of Science and Tamil Nadu University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, we have been working on developing ELISA for seromonitoring five different pathogens in mice and rats, based on our earlier epidemiological studies.
As part of the project, we have identified dominant B cell epitopes of sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV), Kilham’s rat virus (KRV), minute virus of mice (MVM) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). Further, we have also cloned and expressed protein fragments or regions through prokaryotic systems and have standardized ELISA to detect seropositivity for MVM and KRV. On-going studies are focussing on similar work on MHV and KRV. The project is expected to contribute to the development of an indigenous kit for monitoring the subclinical infection status of rats and mice used for experimentation.
3. Drivers of antimicrobial resistance in poultry in India
AMR is a serious public health concern. Agricultural and animal husbandry practices, including the use of growth promoters are factors which have been identified as one of the contributors to AMR. AMR is known to be problem in poultry, but systematic and comprehensive studies to understand the consequences of the use of antimicrobials and the implications of withdrawal or the use of alternatives are lacking. Through this project, we intend to understand the drivers of AMR and design intervention strategies through a multi-disciplinary approach encompassing social science, anthropology, microbiology, nutrition, economics and risk assessment.
In this project, our group is tasked with carrying out part of the activities relating to the flow of AMR genes and the risk of horizontal transfer. Towards this, we have: (a) produced a document with details on antibiotics, classification, chemical structure, mechanisms of action, resistance genes etc. (b) obtained training in microbiological, molecular biological and social science research methodologies such as participatory research (including interviews, focus group discussions), rapid ethnography (including farm visits, observations, transect walks, sketching out the activities) and co-design methodologies, and (c) standardized conventional, multiplex and real-time PCR in our laboratory.
In addition, in consultation with all the other investigators, a sampling frame has been drawn, which includes time-points and types of samples. A pilot run has been carried out where various samples have been collected and bacteria (E. coli, Salmonella) isolated; these are being characterized as per the protocols drawn up.
4. Bovine ephemeral fever virus biology, diagnosis and intervention
Bovine ephemeral fever is a short duration sickness marked by fever, shivering, lameness and muscular stiffness in cattle. It typically affects young animals, reducing appetite and cud chewing in the initial phase, followed by bloat, ruminal stasis, arthritis and lameness. There is reduction in milk production during the symptomatic as well as during the recovery period, and in some cases even after recovery. The disease can spread rapidly since the virus is propagated by tiny blood sucking midges as well as certain mosquitoes.
Although the disease was first reported in India in 1919, and the insect vectors which spread the disease are widespread in India, there are no systematic epidemiological studies; neither is the extent of the problem or the losses incurred known, although veterinarians acknowledge the presence of the disease. Given this background, in collaboration with Indian Institute of Technology – Indore, we propose to study the biology of the virus in relation to cellular processes, develop diagnostics, vaccines and antivirals.
5. Platforms for testing antivirals
Owing to a surge in zoonotic viruses causing human infections and diseases in recent times, there has been intense interest in development of anti-viral compounds or formulations. We would like to initiate programs on developing platform technologies where through-put systems are available for testing antivirals.
To start with, we would like to focus on coronaviruses (CoVs), which are a group of respiratory and enteric viruses infecting birds and mammals alike. In humans, four CoVs (HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1) are associated with common cold while two (severe acute and Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome CoVs; SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV) have caused outbreaks in the last two decades, with fatal outcomes. On the other hand, old as well as new CoVs with serious disease burden exist in domestic animals and poultry; these include transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV), porcine delta-CoV (PDCV), swine acute diarrhoea syndrome CoV (SADS-CoV), porcine respiratory CoV (PRCoV) of pigs, feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV; also known as feline CoV or FCoV) of cats, canine coronavirus (CCoV) of dogs, and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) of poultry. In addition, mouse and rat CoVs (mouse hepatitis virus, MHV; sialodacryoadenitis virus, SDAV of rats) are important pathogens for monitoring the health of laboratory animals, a mandate for good laboratory practice (GLP) toxicological studies. Mammalian coronaviruses causing disease are acquired mostly from bats but also from rodents. Given the diversity and non-pathogenicity of CoVs in bats and known/expected multiple occurrences of spill-over to other animals and man, a continual zoonotic transmission to humans and consequent disease events are anticipated. There is need to investigate and understand various aspects of this group of zoonotic viruses in areas ranging from their evolutionary trajectory, host tropism and switch, molecular interactions with the host, pathogenesis and potential therapeutics and prophylactics. Establishment of protocols to set up platforms to study any of these aspects, especially for prophylaxis and therapy is the need of the hour. I propose to explore establishment of platforms for high-throughput screening of anti-virals through replicon systems and for the development of vaccines through vector technologies, focusing on pig and poultry coronaviruses.
6. Zoonoses and One Health
Animals serve as reservoirs for two-thirds of human pathogens, necessitating the understanding the origin, spread and ecology of such zoonotic pathogens as well as ways and means to stop the occurrence of diseases caused by them. It is important to study various aspects of important zoonotic diseases, starting from sero-epidemiology all the way to vaccines and therapeutics. We would like to partakes in programs which address one or two of the issues relating to zoonoses, particularly in understanding the burden of select such diseases throughout India, and to develop diagnostics for diseases which are thought to exist but are rarely researched in the country.
(* = corresponding author; citations as per Google Scholar)
1. AK Santosh, S Isloor,* C Kaur, P Jasmeen, P Gupta, D Kumar, V Balamurugan, R Sharada, D Rathnamma, NR Hegde. Cloning and characterization of rabies virus glycoprotein gene in baculovirus expression system, in preparation.
2. M Jacquot,* PP Rao, S Yadav, K Nomikou, S Maan, YK Jyothi, N Reddy, K Putty, D Hemadri, KP Singh, NS Maan, NR Hegde, P Mertens, R Biek. Contrasting selective patterns across the segmented genome of bluetongue virus in a global reassortment hotspot. Virus Evolution 5(2):vez027.
3. D Kumar, S Gauthami, U Madala, K Nagalekshmi, PP Rao, A Basu, K Ella, NR Hegde.* Immunogenicity of a candidate Ebola hemorrhagic fever vaccine in mice based on controlled in vitro expression of Ebolavirus glycoprotein. Viral Immunol 31(7):1-13.
4. M Uma, SR Hegde, PP Rao, K Nagalekshmi, S Gauthami, D Kumar, NR Hegde*. A novel point mutation (L70P) inactivates poliovirus 3C protease. Acta Virol 62:68-77.
5. KN Prabhu, S Isloor*, BH Veeresh, D Rathnamma, R Sharada, LJ Das, ML Satyanara-yana, NR Hegde, SA Rahman. Application and comparative evaluation of fluorescent antibody, immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction tests for the detection of rabies virus antigen or nucleic acid in brain samples of animals suspected of rabies in India. Vet Sci 5(1):e24.
6. YV Reddy, B Susmitha, S Patil, Y Krishnajyothi, K Putty, KV Ramakrishna, Sunitha, Vimala, Kavitha, Deepthi, KSR Siva Sai, YN Reddy, GH Reddy, KP Singh, NS Maan, D Hemadri, S Maan, PP Mertens, NR Hegde, PP Rao*. Isolation and evolutionary analysis of Australasian topotype of bluetongue virus serotype 4 from India, Transbound Emerg Dis 65(2):547-556.
7. S Gauthami, D Kumar, KSR Siva Sai, NR Hegde*. The use of BirA-BAP system to study the effect of human cytomegalovirus US2 and US11 on MHC class I heavy chain in cells, Immunol Lett 190:233-9.
8. J Gogoi-Tiwari, V Williams, CB Waryah, P Costantino, H Al-Salami, S Mathavan, K Wells, HK Tiwari, N Hegde, S Isloor, H Al-Sallami, T Mukkur*. Mammary gland pathology subsequent to acute infection with strong versus weak biofilm forming Staphylococcus aureus bovine mastitis isolates: a pilot study using non-invasive mouse mastitis model. PLoS ONE 12(1):e0170668.
9. D Hemadri*, S Maan, MM Chanda, PP Rao, K Putty, Y Krishnajyothi, GH Reddy, V Kumar, K Batra, YV Reddy, NS Maan, YN Reddy, KP Singh, SB Shivachandra, NR Hegde, H Rahman, PPC Mertens. Dual infection with bluetongue virus serotypes and first time isolation of serotype 5 in India. Transbound Emerg Dis 64(6):1912-7.
10. S Gauthami, K Meena, M Uma, YV Reddy, D Kumar, PP Rao*, NR Hegde. MPGIT: a concentrated monophasic phenol guanidinium isothiocyanate reagent for isolation of viral RNA. Indian J Biotechnol 14(3):376-81.
11. M Uma, PP Rao, NR Hegde*. Expression and purification of polioviral proteins in E. coli, and production of antisera as reagents for immunological assays. Protein Expr Purif 128:115-22.
12. Y Krishnajyothi, S Maan, K Kandimalla, NS Maan, RB Tutika, YV Reddy, A Kumar, N Mrunalini, GH Reddy, K Putty, SM Ahmed, YN Reddy, D Hemadri, KP Singh, PPC Mertens, NR Hegde, PP Rao*. Isolation of bluetongue virus 24 from India – an exotic serotype to Australasia. Transbound Emerg Dis 63(4):360-4.
13. YV Reddy, Y Krishnajyothi, B Susmitha, BV Devi, Y Brundavanam, SR Gollapalli, N Karunasri, B Sonali, K Kavitha, SR Patil, G Sunitha, K Putty, GH Reddy, YN Reddy, NR Hegde, PP Rao*. Molecular typing of bluetongue viruses isolated over a decade in South India. Transbound Emerg Dis 63(5):e412-8.
14. PL Preethirani, S Isloor, S Sundareshan, V Nuthanalakshmi, K Deepthikiran, AY Sinha, D Rathnamma, K Nithin Prabhu, R Sharada, TK Mukkur, NR Hegde*. Isolation, biochemical and molecular identification, and in-vitro antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacteria isolated from bubaline subclinical mastitis in South India. PLoS ONE 10(11):e0142717.
15. KM Chandrashekhar, S Isloor, BH Veeresh, R Hegde, D Rathnamma, S Murag, BM Veeregowda, HA Upendra, NR Hegde*. Limit of detection of genomic DNA by conventional PCR for estimating the load of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli associated with bovine mastitis. Folia Microbiol 60(6):465-72.
16. PP Rao, YV Reddy, NR Hegde*. Isolation and complete genome sequencing of bluetongue virus serotype 12 from India. Transbound Emerg Dis 62(5):e52-9.
17. A Singh, M Mitra, G Sampath, P Venugopal, JV Rao, B Krishnamurthy, MK Gupta, SS Krisnha, B Sudhakar, NB Rao, Y Kaushik, K Gopinathan, NR Hegde*, MM Gore, VK Mohan, KM Ella. A Japanese encephalitis vaccine from India induces durable and cross-protective immunity against temporally and spatially wide-ranging global field strains. J Infect Dis 212(5):715-25.
18. J Gogoi-Tiwari, CB Waryah, R Sunagar, HB Veeresh, V Nuthanalakshmi, PL Preethirani, R Sharada, A Bhat, S Isloor, H Al-Salami, NR Hegde, TK Mukkur*. Typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis cases in Australia and India. Aust Vet J 3(8):278-82.
19. S Manjunath, PG Kulkarni, K Nagavelu, RJ Samuel, S Srinivasan, N Ramasamy, NR Hegde*, RS Gudde*. Sero-prevalence of rodent pathogens in India. PLoS ONE 10(7):e0131706.
20. S Maan*, NS Maan, M Belaganahalli, PP Rao, KP Singh, D Hemadri, K Putty, A Kumar, K Batra, Y Krishnajyothi, BS Chandel, GH Reddy, K Nomikou, YN Reddy, H Attoui, NR Hegde, PP Mertens. Full genome sequencing as a basis for molecular epidemiology of bluetongue virus in India. PLoS ONE 10(6):e0131257.
21. J Gogoi-Tiwari, CB Waryah, KY Eto, M Tau, K Wells, P Costantino, HK Tiwari, S Isloor, N Hegde, TK Mukkur*. Relative distribution of virulence-associated factors among Australian bovine Staphylococcus aureus isolates: potential relevance to development of an effective bovine mastitis vaccine. Virulence 6(5):419-23.
22. S Maan, NS Maan, M Belaganahalli, A Kumar, K Batra, PP Rao, D Hemadri, YN Reddy, K Putty, Y Krishnajyothi, GH Reddy, KP Singh, NR Hegde, K Nomikou, D Sreenivasulu, PP Mertens*. Genome sequence of bluetongue virus type 2 from India: evidence for reassortment between outer capsid protein genes. Genome Announc 3(2):e00045-15.
23. CB Waryah, J Gogoi-Tiwari, K Wells, P Costantino, H Al-Salami, R Sunagar, S Isloor, N Hegde, P Richmond, T Mukkur*. Serological versus molecular typing of surface-associated immune evading polysaccharide antigen-based phenotypes of Staphylococcus aureus. J Med Microbiol 63(11):1427-31.
24. C Babra, J Gogoi-Tiwari, P Costantino, R Sunagar, S Isloor, N Hegde, T Mukkur*. Human methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus biofilms: potential associations with antibiotic resistance persistence and surface polysaccharide antigens. J Basic Micribiol 54(7):721-8.
25. SB Rao, V Gupta, M Kumar, NR Hegde, GA Splitter, P Reddanna, GK Radhakrishnan*. Draft genome sequence of the field isolate Brucella melitensis strain Bm IND1 from India, Genome Announc 2(3): e00497-14.
26. VH Basavaraj, G Sampath, NR Hegde*, VK Mohan, KM Ella. Evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of HNVAC, an MDCK-based H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine, in Phase I single centre and Phase II/III multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel assignment studies, Vaccine 32(35):4592-4597.
27. NR Hegde*, D Kumar, PP Rao, PK Kumari, Y Kaushik, R Ravikrishnan, SD Prasad, KM Ella. Development and preclinical testing of HNVAC, a cell culture-based H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine from India. Vaccine 32(29):3636-43.
28. V Sairaju, B Susmitha, PP Rao*, NR Hegde, K Meena, YN Reddy. Type-specific sero-prevalence of bluetongue in Andhra Pradesh, India, during 2005-2009. Indian J Virol 24(3):394-97.
29. AK Santhosh, AR Gomes, R Hegde, D Rathnamma, BM Veeregowda, SM Byregowda, C Renukaprasad, V Bhanuprakash, K Prabhudas, NR Hegde*, S Isloor. Comparative immunogenicity of two peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccines in South Indian sheep and goats under field conditions. Indian J Virol 24(3):373-9.
30. C Babra, J Gogoi-Tiwari, G Pier, TH Thein, R Sunagar, S Sundareshan, S Isloor, NR Hegde, S de Wet, M Deighton, J Gibson, P Costantino, J Wetherall, T Mukkur*. The persistence of biofilm-associated antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical bovine mastitis cases in Australia. Folia Microbiol 58(6):469-74.
31. PP Rao, YN Reddy, K Ganesh, SG Nair, V Niranjan, NR Hegde*. Deep sequencing as a method of typing bluetongue virus isolates. J Virol Methods 193(2):314-19.
32. R Hegde, S Isloor, K Nithin Prabhu, BR Shome, D Rathnamma, VVS Suryanarayana, S Yathiraj, CR Prasad, N Krishnaveni, S Sundareshan, DS Akhila, AR Gomes, NR Hegde*. Incidence of subclinical mastitis and prevalence of major mastitis pathogens in organized farms and unorganized sectors. Indian J Microbiol 53(3):315-20.
33. R Sunagar, SN Deore, PV Deshpande, A Rizwan, AD Sannejal, S Sundareshan, DB Rawool, SB Barbuddhe, MK Jhala, AS Bannalikar, DM Mugalikar, VJ Kumari, K Dhanalakshmi, YN Reddy, PP Rao, C Babra, JG Tiwari, TK Mukkur, P Costantino, JD Wetherall, S Isloor, NR Hegde*. Differentiation of Staphylo-coccus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis by PCR for the fibrinogen binding protein gene (fib). J Dairy Sci 96(5):2857-65.
34. PP Rao, YN Reddy, NR Hegde*. Complete genome sequence of bluetongue virus sero-type 9: implications for serotyping. J Virol 86(15):8333.
35. B Susmitha, D Sudheer, PP Rao*, M Uma, G Prasad, P Minakshi, NR Hegde, YN Reddy. Evidence of bluetongue virus serotype 21 (BTV-21) divergence. Virus Genes 44(3):466-9.
36. PP Rao, YV Reddy, K Meena, B Susmitha, N Karunasree, M Uma, PUVS Prasad, P Chaitanya, YN Reddy, NR Hegde*. Genetic characterization of bluetongue virus serotype 9 isolates from India, Virus Genes 44(2):286-94.
37. SRK Gollapalli, S Mallavarapu, M Uma, PP Rao*, B Susmitha, PUVS Prasad, P Chaitanya, G Prasad, NR Hegde, YN Reddy. Sequences of genes encoding type-specific and group-specific antigens of Indian isolates of bluetongue virus serotype 10 (BTV-10) and implications for their origin. Transbound Emerg Dis 59(2):165-72.
38. D Kumar, NM Beach, X-J Meng, NR Hegde*. Use of PCR-based assays for the detection of the adventitious agent porcine circovirus type 1 in vaccines, and for confirming the identity of cell substrates and viruses used in vaccine production. J Virol Methods 179(1):201-11.
39. D Safronetz, NR Hegde, H Ebihara, M Denton, GP Kobinger, S St Jeor, H Feldmann*, DC Johnson*. 2009. Adenovirus vectors expressing hantavirus proteins produce sterile immunity and protect hamsters against lethal challenge with Andes virus. J Virol 83(14):7285-95.
40. NR Hegde, MS Chevalier, TW Wisner, MC Denton, K Shire, L Frappier, DC Johnson*. 2006. The role of BiP in ER-associated degradation of major histo-compatibility complex class I heavy chain induced by cytomegalovirus proteins. J Biol Chem 281:20910-19.
41. NR Hegde, C Dunn, DM Lewinsohn, MA Jarvis, JA Nelson, DC Johnson*. 2005. Endogenous human cytomegalovirus gB is efficiently presented by MHC class II molecules to CD4+ CTL. J Exp Med 202(8):1109-19.
42. NR Hegde, DC Johnson*. 2003. Human cytomegalovirus US2 causes similar effects on both major histocompatibility complex class I and II proteins in epithelial and glial cells. J Virol 77(17):9287-94.
43. NR Hegde, RA Tomazin, TW Wisner, C Dunn, J Boname, DM Lewinsohn, DC Johnson*. 2002. Inhibition of assembly, transport and loading of HLA-DR by human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein US3: a novel mechanism for evading MHC class II antigen presentation. J Virol 76(21):10929-41.
44. MS Deshpande, TC Ambagala, NR Hegde, M Navaratnam, MJ Hariharan, S Srikumaran*. 2002. Induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte and antibody responses to bovine herpesvirus-1 by DNA immunization. Vaccine 20(31-32):3744-51.
45. MT Huber, TW Wisner, KA Goldsmith, NR Hegde, D Rauch, RJ Roller, C Krummen-acher, RJ Eisenberg, GH Cohen, DC Johnson*. 2000. Herpes simplex virus with highly reduced gD levels can efficiently enter and spread between human keratinocytes. J Virol 75(21):10309-18.
46. R Tomazin, J Boname, NR Hegde, DM Lewinsohn, Y Altschuler, TR Jones, P Cresswell, JA Nelson, SR Riddell, DC Johnson*. 1999. Cytomegalovirus US2 destroys two components of the MHC class II pathway, preventing recognition by CD4+ T cells. Nature Med 5(9):1039-43.
47. NR Hegde, MS Deshpande, DL Godson, LA Babiuk, S Srikumaran*. 1999. Bovine lymphocyte antigen A11-specific peptide motif as a means to identify bovine cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes of bovine herpesvirus 1. Viral Immunol 12(2):149-61.
48. S Zatechka, Jr., NR Hegde, K Hariharan, S Srikumaran*. 1999. Identification of murine cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes of bovine herpesvirus 1. Vaccine 17(7-8):686-94.
49. NR Hegde, HA Lewin, MJ Duggan, JR Stabel, S Srikumaran*. 1998. Development of a syngeneic bovine fibroblast cell line: Implications for the generation of the study of bovine cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Viral Immunol 11(1):37-48.
50. NR Hegde, S Srikumaran*. 1997. The use of bovine MHC class I allele-specific peptide motifs and proteolytic cleavage specificities to predict potential cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes of bovine viral diarrhea virus. Virus Genes 14(2):111-21.
51. NR Hegde, S Srikumaran*. 1996. Prediction of potential cytotoxic T lympho-cyte epitopes of bovine herpesvirus 1 based on allele-specific peptide motifs and proteolytic cleavage specificities. Virus Genes 13(2):121-31.
52. NR Hegde, SA Ellis, RM Gaddum, CA Tregaskes, G Sarath, S Srikumaran*. 1995. Peptide motif of cattle MHC class I antigen, BoLA-A11. Immunogenet 42(4):302-03.
1. NR Hegde*, S Gauthami, HM Sampath Kumar, J Bayry. 2018. The use of databases, data mining and immunoinformatics in vaccinology: where are we? Exp Opin Drug Discov 13(2):117-130.
2. NR Hegde*, MM Gore. 2017. Japanese encephalitis vaccines: immunogenicity, protect-ive efficacy, effectiveness, and impact on the burden of disease. Hum Vacc Immunother 13(6):1-18.
3. PP Rao*, YV Reddy, B Susmitha, Y Krishnajyothi, GH Reddy, K Putty, D Sreenivasulu, NR Hegde, YN Reddy. 2016. A decade of BTV research in Andhra Pradesh, a southern state of India. Vet Ital 52(3-4):299-304.
4. R Sunagar, NR Hegde,* GJ Archana, AY Sinha, K Nagamani, S Isloor. 2016. Prevalence and clonotype distribution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in India. J Global Antimicrob Res 7:46-52.
5. PP Rao*, NR Hegde, YN Reddy, YK Jyothi, YV Reddy, B Susmitha, K Putty, GH Reddy. 2016. Epidemiology of bluetongue in India. Transbound Emerg Dis 63(2):e151-64.
6. NR Hegde*. 2015. Cell culture-based influenza vaccines: a necessary and indispensable investment for the future. Hum Vacc Immunother 11(5):1223-34.
7. S Sundareshan, S Isloor*, Y Hari Babu, TK Mukkur, NR Hegde. 2014. Coagulase-negative staphylococci in mastitis. J Commonwealth Vet Assoc 30(1):5-15.
8. NR Hegde*, SV Kaveri, J Bayry. 2011. Recent advances in the administration of vaccines for infectious diseases: microneedles as painless delivery devices for mass vaccination. Drug Discov Today 16(23-24):1061-68.
9. NR Hegde*, PP Rao, J Bayry, SV Kaveri. 2009. Immunotherapy of viral infections, Immunotherapy 1(4):691-711.
10. NR Hegde, M Chevalier, DC Johnson*. 2003. Viral inhibition of MHC class II antigen presentation. Trends Immunol 24(5):278-85.
11. AS de Groot*, V Nene, NR Hegde, S Srikumaran, J Rayner, W Martin. 2003. T cell epitope identification for bovine vaccines: an epitope mapping method for BoLA-A11. Int J Parasitol 33(5):641-53.
12. NR Hegde, S Srikumaran*. 2000. Reverse immunogenetic and polyepitopic approaches for the induction of cell-mediated immunity against bovine viral pathogens. Anim Health Res Rev 1(2):103-18.
Chapters in books, monographs, compendia
1. PP Rao, NR Hegde,* KP Singh, K Putty, D Hemadri, NS Maan, YN Reddy, S Maan, PPC Mertens.* 2016. Bluetongue: aetiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and control. In “Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases of livestock.” Ed. J Bayry, Springer International Publishing AG, Switzerland, Chapter 1, pg. 3-54.
2. DC Johnson*, NR Hegde. 2002. Inhibition of the MHC class II antigen presentation pathway by human cytomegalovirus. In “Viral proteins counteracting host defences,” Curr Topics Microbiol Immunol 269:101-15, Springer-Verlag, Germany.
Correspondences, Editorials, Opinions, Perspectives, Views
1. GR Medigeshi*, K Fink, NR Hegde. 2018. Position paper on road map for RNA virus research in India. Front Microbiol 9:1753.
2. PP Rao, NR Hegde*, YN Reddy. 2012. Intercontinental movement of blue-tongue virus and consequences for trade. J Virol 86(15): 8341.
3. NR Hegde, Maddur MS, SV Kaveri, J Bayry*. 2009. Reasons to include viruses in the tree of life. Nature Rev Microbiol 7(8):615.
4. NR Hegde, MS Mohan, PP Rao, SV Kaveri, J Bayry*. 2009. Thermostable foot-and-mouth disease virus as a vaccine candidate for endemic countries: a perspective. Vaccine 27:2199-201.
5. NR Hegde, DC Johnson*. 2005. A seek and hide game between CD1-restricted T cells and herpesviruses. J Clin Invest 115(5):1146-9.
National / Regional
1. BM Akshatha, S Isloor, S Sundareshan, BH Veeresh, V Nuthanalakshmi, AY Sinha, D Rathnamma, BM Veeregowda, HA Upendra, AS Bhat, BR Shome, R Hegde, KN Prabhu, R Sunagar, CB Waryah, J Gogoi-Tiwari, TK Mukkur, NR Hegde.* 2019. Biofilm production, antibiotic resistance and the presence of ica, bap, agr and blaZ genes in bovine mastitis-associated Staphylococcus aureus isolates from South India. Indian J Comp Microbiol Immunol Infect Dis, in press.
2. D Kumar,* PP Rao, NR Hegde. 2019. Next-generation sequencing as diagnostic tool in veterinary research. J Anim Res 9(6):797-806.
3. P Sheela,* S Isloor, D Rathnamma, BM Veeregowda, BE Shambulingappa, ML Satyanarayana, S Sundareshan, NR Hegde. 2019. Characterization by spa typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates originating from bovine and bubaline mastitis in southern India. Indian J Comp Microbiol Immunol Infect Dis 40(1):21-30.
4. KM Chandrashekhar, S Isloor,* D Rathnamma, BM Veeregowda, R Hegde, R Sharada, GS Naveen Kumar, NR Hegde. 2018. Quantification of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli from bovine subclinical milk samples by conventional PCR. J Exp Biol Agri Sci 6(5):808-815.
5. YV Reddy, B Susmitha, YN Reddy, D Sreenivasulu, K Putty, KSR Siva Sai, PP Rao*, NR Hegde. 2018. Evidence of shared genomic segment 6 between bluetongue virus serotypes 1 and 2. Indian J Vet Anim Sci Res (46(6):1150-1157.
6. S Sundareshan*, S Isloor, YH Babu, R Sunagar, J Gogoi-Tiwari, CB Waryah, TK Mukkur, NR Hegde. 2018. Isolation and molecular characterization of rare coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus variants isolated from bovine milk samples. Indian J Comp Microbiol Immunol Infect Dis 38(2):66-73.
7. M Uma, S Mallavarapu, N Kartika, PP Rao, NR Hegde*. 2016. Parameters of controlled expression of potentially toxic recombinant proteins in E. coli with picornaviral 3ABC as a model. Indian J Comp Microbiol Immunol Infect Dis 37(1):9-15.
8. S Sundareshan, S Isloor*, Y Hari Babu, B Awati, R Hegde, R Sunagar, CB Waryah, J Gogoi-Tiwari, TK Mukkur, NR Hegde. 2014. A comparative evaluation of four detection tests and the isolation of coagulase-negative staphylococci from subclinical mastitis cases in South Indian cattle. Indian J Comp Microbiol Immunol Infect Dis 35(2):73-8.
9. S Sundareshan*, Y Hari Babu, S Isloor, B Awati, NR Hegde. 2012. Isolation and phenotype-based speciation of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from bovine milk samples. Frontier J Vet Amin Sci 1(1):34-9.
10. NR Hegde*. 2011. The saga of the humanized mouse: a giant leap into the galaxy or a small step for humankind? J Lab Anim Sci 1(1):9-23.
11. NR Hegde*, DN Streblow. 2008. Understanding the biology of animal viruses and the physiopathology of animal viral diseases through genomics, proteomics and systems biology. Int J Integrative Biol 2(1):32-42.
12. MS Rao*, NR Hegde, Jayashreet CR, Raghavan R. 1997. Investigation into a severe outbreak of ulcerative stomatitis due to Fusobacterium necrophorum in a piggery farm. Indian J Anim Sci 67(1):31-2.
Madhavi Annamanedi, DBT – RA
Ph. D., University of Hyderabad
Current Research Interest: Typing and biofilm formation of mastitis-associated staphylococci
Sathi N.N. Mallick, RA
Ph. D., Indian Institute of Technology – Kharagpur
Current Research Interest: Anti-microbial resistance
Madhuranjana Gargi, SRF
M. Sc., M.Phil. (Biosciences), Central University of Punjab
Current Research Interest: Anti-microbial resistance
Priya Gupta, Ph.D. student, JRF-DBT
M. Sc. (Biotechnology), Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology
Current Research Interest: Bovine ephemeral fever virus biology
Pagala Jasmeen, Ph.D. student, JRF-CSIR
B. Tech. (Biotechnology), Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University – Pulivendula
Current Research Interest: Bovine ephemeral fever virus biology
Sashikanta Parida, Ph.D. student, JRF-UGC
M.Sc. (Zoology), Utkal University
Current Research Interest: Undecided
Just completed tenure as RA-II
Kandala Pavan Asrith
Pursuing other career options
(Only those as PI are listed)
1. Molecular diagnosis of COVID19 and related respiratory diseases (Academic Partner), BIRAC, 06/2020 – 11/2021
2. Drivers of antimicrobial resistance in poultry in India (India Lead), DBT (Indo-UK call on AMR), 09/2018 – 08/2021
3. ELISA for sero-monitoring of rabies vaccine antibodies, DBT (Canine Research Network), 04/2018 – 09/2020
4. Diagnostics for lab animal health monitoring; Phase–II, DBT, 01/2017 – 06/2020
5. Molecular epidemiology and genomics of mastitis-associated staphylococci, DBT, 01/2017 – 08/2019
6. Diagnostics for lab animal health monitoring; Phase–I, DBT, 10/2011 – 3/2015
7. Vaccines for bovine staphylococcal mastitis (India Lead), DBT (Indo-Australian), 07/2010 – 03/2014
8. Adenovirus vectored vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease, DBT (Rapid Grants for Young Investigators), 02/2009 – 01/2012
National Institute of Animal Biotechnology
Survey No. 37, Opp. Journalist Colony
Extended Q City Road, Near Gowlidoddy
Telangana – 500032